In Norway, monitoring of chemical contamination is performed within four different environmental monitoring programs; monitoring of hazardous substances in Norwegian fjords and coastal waters (MILKYS), monitoring of pollutants in large lakes, monitoring of pollutants in urbanized fjords, and monitoring of pollutants in terrestrial and urbanized environments. Besides chemical concentrations, a number of biological markers (biomarkers) are included in MILKYS.
This report evaluates if the used biomarkers are useful in relation to the aim of the program and if biomarkers could be useful within the three other programs. A large number of biomarkers were assessed and ranked according to specificity for chemicals, ecological relevance, ability to provide early warning, ability to detect different types of chemicals and mixtures, current status in environmental monitoring and feasibility of the analysis. The following biomarkers are suggested to be used: