Chapter 9. Landfilling of waste

Regulations relating to the recycling of waste (Waste Regulations). This is an unofficial translation of the Norwegian regulation

Laid down pursuant to sections 9, 11, 12, 16, 20 and 31 of the Act of 13 March 1981 no. 6 relating to protection against pollution and concerning waste (the Pollution Control Act). Cf. the EEA Agreement, Appendix XX no. 32d (Council Directive 1999/31/EC).

9-1. Purpose

The purpose of the provisions in this chapter is to ensure that waste is landfilled in a sound and controlled manner such that adverse effects on the environment and human health are prevented or reduced as far as possible.

9-2. Scope

The provisions in this chapter apply to all landfills, including internal landfills where a producer of waste is responsible for carrying out waste disposal at the place of production. Appendix II to this chapter also applies to producers of waste.

The provisions in this chapter also apply to storage facilities for waste if the storage time prior to disposal of the waste is longer than one year or prior to recovery or treatment is longer than three years.

The provisions in this chapter nevertheless do not apply to
a) the use of suitable inert waste in redevelopment/restoration and filling-in work, or for construction purposes,
b) the deposit of unpolluted soil or of non-hazardous inert waste resulting from prospecting and extraction, treatment, and storage of mineral resources as well as from the operation of quarries
c) the deposit of non-hazardous dredging sludges alongside rivers, lakes, fjords and sounds from where they have been dredged out, 
d) the redepositing and isolation of polluted soil in the same locality from which it was dredged.

9-3. Definitions

For the purposes of this chapter:
a) waste means discarded objects of personal property or substances. Surplus objects and substances from service industries, manufacturing industries and treatment plants, etc., are also considered to be waste. Waste water and exhaust gases are not considered to be waste, cf. section 27 of the Pollution Control Act, b) hazardous waste means waste that cannot be treated appropriately together with other household waste because it may cause serious pollution or involve a risk of injury to people and animals., cf. chapter 11 on hazardous waste, 
c) explosive waste means waste that may explode when exposed to the effects of a flame and that is more sensitive to shocks or friction than dinitrobenzene, 
d) radioactive waste means waste that is regulated by provisions pursuant to the Act of 12 May 2000 no. 36 on radiation protection and use of radiation, 
e) Infectious waste means waste that contains viable microorganisms or their toxins that are known to or are assumed to be able to cause sickness in humans or other living organisms, 
f) Non-hazardous waste means waste which is not covered by the definitions under letters b-e, 
g) inert waste means waste that does not undergo any significant physical, chemical or biological transformations. Inert waste will not dissolve, burn or otherwise physically or chemically react, biodegrade or adversely affect other matter with which it comes into contact in a way likely to give rise to environmental pollution or harm human health. The total leachability and pollutant content of the waste and the ecotoxicity of the leachate must be insignificant and in particular not endanger the quality of the surface water and/or groundwater,
h) landfill means a permanent waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land (i.e. underground),
i) treatment means the physical, thermal, chemical or biological processes, including sorting, that change the characteristics of the waste in order to reduce its volume or hazardous nature, facilitate its handling or enhance recovery,
j) biodegradable waste means any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition, such as food and garden waste, and paper, paperboard and timber,
k) liquid waste means any waste in liquid form, 
l) leachate means any liquid percolating through the deposited waste and emitted from or contained within a landfill, 
m) landfill gas  means all the gases generated from the landfilled waste, 
n) producer of waste means the party that generates the waste or who through pre-treatment, mixing or otherwise alters the nature or composition of the waste. The municipality shall be considered a producer of waste for collected household waste, 
o) operator means the natural or legal person responsible for a landfill,
p) competent authority means the Environment Agency as the competent authority for national landfills for hazardous waste and for corporate landfills when the company’s primary activity requires a permit from the Environment Agency in accordance with the Pollution Control Act. The county governor is the competent authority for corporate landfills when the company’s primary activity requires a permit from the county governor under the terms of the Pollution Control Act, for municipal/intermunicipal landfills and for privately owned landfills for non-hazardous waste that do not belong to a company, 
q) disposal means depositing or incineration of waste without energy recovery.

9-4. Prohibition on the dumping of certain types of waste

The dumping of the following types of waste is not permitted: 
a) Biologically degradable waste, with the exception of waste where total organic carbon (TOC) does not exceed 10% or where ignition loss does not exceed 20%. It is however permitted to dump: 
1) Road sweepings 
2) Polluted earth and polluted mud 
3) Waste collected in the gratings, filters and sand traps of sewage treatment plants 
4) Sewage sludge that does not satisfy the quality requirements for fertiliser 

In special cases the pollution authority may permit the dumping of other biologically degradable waste. 
b) liquid waste,
c) waste which, in the conditions of landfill, must be regarded as explosive, radioactive or corrosive, oxidising, highly flammable or flammable, cf. appendix 3 to chapter 11 on hazardous waste, 
d) infectious waste from hospitals and other medical or veterinary establishments, and waste from research and development or education facilities that contains chemical substances that are unknown and/or are new and the effects of which on humans and the environment are not known, 
e) whole used tyres and shredded used tyres with the exception of bicycle tyres, 
f) any other type of waste which does not fulfil the acceptance criteria for waste, cf. appendix II to this chapter. The dilution or mixture of waste solely in order to meet the criteria is prohibited.

The dilution or mixture of waste solely in order to meet the waste acceptance criteria is prohibited.

The dumping of the following types of waste is prohibited in underground storage sites:
a) waste and waste containers which may react to the chemical and physical storage conditions and lead to:
- a change in the volume, 
- other reactions which could endanger the operational safety and/or the integrity of the barrier. 
b) waste that is biodegradable, 
c) waste that has a pungent smell, 
d) waste that can generate a gas-air mixture which is toxic or explosive. Closed containers must not contain a concentration of explosive gas higher than 10% of the concentration which corresponds to the lower explosive limit, e) waste with insufficient stability to correspond to the geomechanical conditions, 
f) waste that is auto-flammable or liable to spontaneous combustion under the current storage conditions, gaseous products, volatile waste, unidentified mixtures of waste.

9-5. Classes of landfillsEach landfill shall be classified into one of the following classes: 
a) Class 1: landfills for hazardous waste, 
b) Class 2: landfills for non-hazardous waste, 
c) Class 3: landfills for inert waste.

9-6. Waste to be accepted in the different classes of landfill

All waste shall be treated before it is landfilled, cf. section 9-3 letter i, unless treatment cannot promote economically viable recovery measures and reduce the health and environmental risks related to the waste.

Only hazardous waste and waste that fulfils the criteria laid down by the competent authority for the landfilling of hazardous waste is permitted to be landfilled at landfills for hazardous waste.

Landfills for non-hazardous waste may be used for
a) non-hazardous waste that fulfils the criteria of the competent authority for the acceptance of waste at landfills for non-hazardous waste,
b) stable, non-reactive hazardous waste with leaching behaviour equivalent to that of the non-hazardous types of waste specified under letter a. This hazardous waste shall not be landfilled together with biodegradable waste. 

Inert waste landfills shall be used only for inert waste and slightly contaminated masses, cf. section 2.1 of appendix II.

9-7. Requirements for permits

An operator of a waste landfill must have a permit under the terms of the Pollution Control Act.

Permits for landfilling shall not be granted unless the landfill can satisfy all the relevant requirements in this chapter and its appendices.

9-8. Application for a permit

An application for a permit to operate a landfill in accordance with section 9-7 shall contain the following information as a minimum 
a) the identity of the applicant, of the owner of the property and of the operator, 
b) a description of the types and the total annual quantity of waste to be deposited, 
c) the proposed total capacity of the landfill,
d) a description of the site and affected properties, map and co-ordinates, as well as information on the hydrogeological and geological conditions, 
e) the proposed methods for pollution prevention and abatement, 
f) the proposed operation, monitoring and control plan, 
g) the proposed plan for the closure and after-care procedures,
h) assessment of the need for an impact assessment, cf. Regulations no. 502 of 21 May 1999 relating to impact assessments pursuant to chapter VII-a of the Planning and Building Act,
i) a financial guarantee or appropriate security from the applicant, cf. section 9-10, subsection one.

9-9. Content of the permit 

A permit for the operation of a landfill shall as a minimum contain:
a) the class of the landfill, cf. section 9-5, 
b) a list of the defined types and the total quantity of waste which are authorised to be deposited in the landfill
c) the requirements for the landfill preparations, landfilling operations and monitoring and control procedures, cf. appendices I and III to this chapter, as well as provisional requirements for the closure and after-care operations,
d) detailed information on the obligation of the applicant to report to the competent authority, cf. section 9-13, 
e) requirements relating to satisfactory financial guarantees or similar security, cf. section 9-10, subsection one.

f) acceptance criteria, cf. appendix II to this chapter. The competent authority may set stricter or more lenient acceptance criteria in the landfill's permit where Council Decision 2003/33/EC allows.

9-10. Financial guarantee and covering of costs 

Each landfill shall provide a satisfactory financial guarantee or similar security in order to ensure that the obligations that result from the permit, including the closure and after-care procedures that are required under section 9-15, can be fulfilled.

 All costs involved in the setting up and operation of a landfill shall be covered by the price to be charged by the operator for the depositing of waste at the landfill. This also applies to the costs involved in the financial security or its equivalent as specified in subsection one and the estimated costs for the closure and after-care of the site for a minimum period of 30 years.

9-11. Waste acceptance

When waste is accepted at a landfill, documentation that the waste fulfils the criteria concerning waste quality that have been set in the permit for the landfill shall be presented. From 1 January 2007, the producer of waste must document that the waste fulfils the requirements concerning quality as presented in appendix II to this chapter. From 1 July 2007 the operator must run the landfill pursuant to the acceptance criteria presented in appendix II to this chapter. Waste which does not fulfil the landfill's acceptance criteria shall be rejected.

The operator shall make sure that inspections are carried out on site upon waste reception, in accordance with appendix II to this chapter or the permit for the landfill.

The Environment Agency may order that information from basic characterisation and verification is provided on the approved form, which must accompany the waste.

9-12. Registration

A register shall be kept of the quantities and characteristics of the waste deposited, indicating origin, date of delivery, identity of the producer and, in the case of hazardous waste, the precise location on the site. This information shall be made available to the national and EU statistical authorities when requested for statistical purposes. The information shall be kept for 10 years.

9-13. Reporting

The operator undertakes to report to the competent authority a minimum of once a year on the types and quantities of the deposited waste and on the result of the monitoring programme established under the terms of sections 9-14 and 9-15 and appendix III to this chapter.

9-14. Control and monitoring procedures in the operational phase

During the operating phase, a control and monitoring programme shall be implemented as specified in the permit, cf. appendix III to this chapter.

The operator shall notify the competent authority of any significant adverse environmental effects revealed by the control and monitoring procedures.

Sampling and analyses shall be carried out according to recognised methods.

9-15. Closure and after-care procedures

When a landfill, or a demarcated part of a landfill, is closed, a duty to provide notification, etc., arises in accordance with section 20 of the Pollution Control Act.

A landfill, or part of it, may only be regarded as definitely closed after the competent authority has carried out a final on-site inspection and has found that the conditions for closure are fulfilled. This does not reduce the responsibility of the operator under the conditions of the permit.

After a landfill has been definitely closed, the operator shall be responsible for its maintenance, monitoring and control in the after-care phase in compliance with appendix III to this chapter. The operator shall notify the competent authority of any significant adverse environmental effects revealed by the control and monitoring procedures.

9-16. Existing landfills

The operator shall, before 1 May 2003, present to the competent authority a plan for closure or a conditioning plan for the site in the form of a new application, cf. section 9-8. The application must specify the measures required to bring the site into compliance with the requirements of this chapter, as well as a schedule for the implementation of those measures.

The competent authority shall make a decision on whether operations at an existing landfill may continue on the basis of the conditioning plan submitted or whether it shall be closed down as soon as possible in accordance with sections 9-8, letter g, and 9-15. All landfills shall be operated in compliance with the requirements in this chapter by 16 July 2009.

The provisions in sections 9-4,  9-5 and 9-11 as well as appendix II to this chapter shall apply to landfills for hazardous waste by 16 July 2003.

The provision in section 9-6 shall apply to landfills for hazardous waste by 16 July 2004.

The criteria in appendix II to this chapter, as it reads after the amendments of 3 October 2006, shall enter into force for producers of waste on 1 January 2007. The criteria in appendix II shall enter into force for landfill operators on 1 July 2007.

Appendix I. General requirements for all classes of landfills

1. Control and monitoring

In order to satisfy the requirement concerning procedures for control and monitoring at a landfill, requirements relating to weight shall generally be imposed if this is not considered to be unreasonable or obviously unnecessary.

2. Water control and leachate management

Appropriate measures shall be taken, with respect to the characteristics of the landfill and the meteorological conditions, in order to:
a) control water from precipitations entering into the landfill body,
b) prevent surface water and/or groundwater from entering into the landfilled waste
c) collect contaminated water and leachate,
d) treat contaminated water and leachate collected from the landfill if it is necessary to achieve the required discharge quality.
The above provisions may not apply to landfills for inert waste.

3. Protection of soil and water

3.1. A landfill must be situated and designed so as to meet the necessary conditions for preventing pollution of the soil, groundwater or surface water and ensuring efficient collection of leachate as and when required. Protection of soil, groundwater and surface water is to be achieved by the combination of a geological barrier and a bottom liner during the operational/active phase and by the combination of a geological barrier and a bottom liner during the operational/active phase and by the combination of a geological barrier and a top liner during the passive phase/post closure.
3.2. The geological barrier is determined by geological and hydrogeological conditions below and in the vicinity of a landfill site providing sufficient attenuation capacity to prevent a potential risk to soil and groundwater.
The landfill base and sides shall consist of a mineral layer which satisfies the following permeability and thickness requirements:
- landfill for hazardous waste: K1 = 1.0 x 10-9 m/s, thickness = 5 m, 
- landfill for non-hazardous waste: K = 1.0 x 10-9 m/s, thickness = 1 m,
- landfill for inert waste: K = 1.0 x 10-7 m/s, thickness = 1 m, 
 or in another way provides equivalent protection of soil, groundwater and surface water.
Where the geological barrier does not naturally meet the above conditions it can be completed artificially and reinforced by other means giving equivalent protection. An artificially established geological barrier should be no less than 0,5 metres thick.
3.3. On sites for hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste, an artificial sealing membrane and a drainage layer with a minimum thickness of 0.5 m shall be set up in addition to the geological barrier specified in point 3.2 so as to ensure that leachate accumulation at the base of the landfill is kept to a minimum. Requirements can be set for a surface sealing if this is considered necessary to prevent leachate formation.
3.4. If, on the basis of an environmental risk assessment, cf. Council Directive 80/68/EEC,2 it has been established that the collection and treatment of leachate is not necessary or that the landfill poses no potential hazard to soil, groundwater or surface water, the requirements in point 2 letter c, and sections 3.2 and 3.3 above may be reduced accordingly.

4. Gas control

4.1. Appropriate measures shall be taken in order to control the accumulation and migration of landfill gas.
4.2. Landfill gas shall be collected from all landfills receiving biodegradable waste and the landfill gas must be treated. If the gas collected cannot be used to produce energy, it must be flared. The collection, treatment and use of landfill gas shall be carried on in a manner that does not pose a risk to the environment or to human health.

5. Nuisances and hazards

Measures shall be taken at the landfill to minimise nuisances and hazards arising from:
- emissions of odours and dust,
- wind-blown materials, 
- noise and traffic,
- birds, vermin and insects, 
- formation of aerosols.

6. Stability

The emplacement of waste on the site shall take place in such a way as to ensure stability of the mass of waste and associated structures, particularly in respect of avoidance of slippages. Where an artificial barrier is established it must be ensured that settlement that may cause damage to the barrier is prevented

7. Barriers

The landfill shall be secured sufficiently to prevent free access to and illegal dumping on the site.
1 K = the hydraulic conductivity of the mineral stratum measured in m per second (m/s). 
2 EFT L 20 of 26 January 1980, p. 43. The directive was last amended by directive 91/692/EEC (EFT L 377 of 31 December 1991, p. 48).

Appendix II. Waste characterisation and acceptance criteria

The purpose of appendix II is to make the composition, leaching potential, environmental effects and other characteristics of importance to the landfill in the long and short term known as precisely as possible before dumping.

1. Procedures for waste characterisation and acceptance

1.1. Basic characterisation 
Producers of waste shall ensure that a basic characterisation of the waste is carried out before dumping takes place. The basic characterisation shall document the following:

a) The name and business registration number of the producer of waste. The municipality shall be considered a producer of waste for collected household waste. 
b) Information about the process generating the waste and about the raw materials used, unless this is included in the waste code (cf. letter f). 
c) Information about the waste treatment applied to meet section 9-6 of these regulations, or an account of the reasons why such treatment is not considered necessary. 
d) Data on the composition of the waste and the leaching behaviour, through both a percolation test and standard leaching test. 
e) The smell, colour and physical form of the waste. 
f) The waste code pursuant to the European List of Wastes and waste substance number according to the applicable Norwegian standard on the classification of waste. The waste codes can be found in appendix 1 to chapter 11 on hazardous waste in these regulations. 
g) The hazard properties (cf. appendix 3 to chapter 11 on hazardous waste in these regulations) used as a basis for the classification of waste as non-hazardous. If the waste is listed in the European List of Wastes with waste codes for both hazardous and non-hazardous waste (mirror entries), the classification of the waste must be documented. 
h) Confirmation that the prohibition in section 9-4 in these regulations does not apply to the waste. 
i) Information about the landfill class at which the waste may be accepted, cf. section 9-5 of these regulations. 
j) Any additional precautions to be taken at the landfill when handling the waste. 
k) Options for recycling of the waste.

For waste regularly generated in the same process, the basic characterisation shall also document: 
i. Whether the waste consists of a mixture of different materials and, if so, the composition of the mixture and the extent to which the composition may vary. 
ii. A description of the potential variation in leaching behaviour, smell, colour and physical form, and the extent of this variation. 
iii. Information about parameters to be used during verification and how often verification shall take place.

1.2. Requirements regarding testing 
Information about the composition of the waste and leaching behaviour shall be substantiated by testing. However, testing is not required if at least one of the following conditions is met:

a) The waste is generated by the same source and is classified as inert waste according to one of the following waste codes:

Code from the European List of Wastes Description Restrictions

10 11 03

Glass fibre

Only without organic binding agents

15 01 07

Glass packaging

 

17 01 01

Concrete

Only sorted construction and demolition waste

17 01 02

Bricks

Only sorted construction and demolition waste

17 01 03

Tiles and ceramics

Only sorted construction and demolition waste

17 01 07

Mixtures of concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics

Only sorted construction and demolition waste

17 02 02

Glass

 

17 05 04

Soil and stones

Except top soil with a high organic content and masses from contaminated soil

19 12 05

Glass

 

20 01 02

Glass

Only separately collected glass

20 02 02

Soil and stones

Only from garden and park waste, except top soil with a high organic content and masses from contaminated soil

The waste shall be tested if it is suspected that the waste may be contaminated so that the limit values in 2.1 may be exceeded.

b) All the necessary information for basic characterisation is known and duly justified. 
c) Testing and/or analysis of the waste concerned is impractical or appropriate testing procedures and/or acceptance criteria are not available. If this exception is to apply, documentation must be produced to prove that the conditions have been met, and other documentation must be provided that the waste may be dumped at a landfill belonging to the appropriate class.
d) The waste is ordinary waste and shall be dumped at a landfill for ordinary waste. This does not apply to ordinary waste co-disposed with stable, non-reactive hazardous waste, or if it is suspected that the waste may contain hazardous waste. The waste producer must however organise testing that documents that the waste is not covered by the prohibition in Section 9-4, subsection 1 letter a.  
e) Stable, non-reactive waste containing asbestos which does not contain other hazardous substances than bound asbestos may be dumped at landfills for non-hazardous waste without testing.

The producer of waste shall keep reports from the basic characterisation and relevant analysis results as long as this waste is delivered for dumping, and thereafter for at least 10 years.

The producer of waste shall ensure that a summary of the basic characterisation is delivered to the operator at all landfills where the waste is dumped. The operator shall keep one copy of this summary, for the entire operating period of the landfill, including the post-closure phase.

1.3. Verification of regularly generated waste

If the waste is regularly generated, the producer of waste shall ensure that the waste is verified. The verification shall show that characteristics of the waste correspond to the results of the basic characterisation.

The verification shall include inspection of specific critical parameters which were identified in the basic characterisation, including testing of the leaching behaviour.

The producer of waste shall ensure that the methods used for testing are the same as the test methods used for the basic characterisation.

Waste exempt from testing at the basic characterisation is also exempt from testing during verification. However, the waste shall still be examined in other ways in order to verify that it complies with the information in the basic characterisation.

Verification shall be performed at least once a year or more frequently if this is stated in the basic characterisation.

The producer of waste shall keep verification reports and analysis results at least until the report from the following verification is available.

The producer of waste shall ensure that information about the last verification completed is provided when waste is dumped at the landfill.

1.4. On-site inspection

The operator shall decide whether the waste may be dumped at the landfill on the basis of documentation produced by the producer of waste. The operator shall ensure that each load of waste which arrives for dumping is visually inspected before and after unloading. If the producer of waste is also the operator of the landfill, this inspection may be carried out during loading.

If waste is not accepted at a landfill because the waste does not meet the acceptance criteria, the operator shall notify the competent authority.

The operator shall ensure that spot checks are carried out on at least 1 out of 100 waste loads delivered to the landfill. Samples from the spot checks shall be kept for at least 1 month. Samples from the spot checks shall be tested in order to show that the waste complies with the information in the documentation. For regularly generated waste, at least the same parameters as those used for verification shall be tested. Waste exempt from testing during basic characterisation is also exempt from testing during spot checks. In this case, the waste shall be examined in other ways in order to ensure that it complies with the information in the basic characterisation.

The operator shall ensure that records are kept of spot checks (cf. section 9-12). Records with copies of analysis results must be kept for at least 1 year. Spot checks are not required at corporate landfills.

2. Acceptance criteria

2.1. Acceptance criteria for inert waste landfills

2.1.1. Leaching limit values 
Slightly contaminated masses received at landfills for inert waste may not exceed the following leaching limit values:

Parameter L/S = 10 l/kg from standard leaching test with 
particle size < 4 mm 
mg/kg dry matter
C0 (L/S = 0.1 l/kg) from percolation test 
mg/l

Arsenic (As)

0.5

0.06

Barium (Ba)

20

4

Cadmium (Cd)

0.04

0.02

Chromium (Cr), total

0.5

0.1

Copper (Cu)

2

0.6

Mercury (Hg)

0.01

0.002

Molybdenum (Mo)

0.5

0.2

Nickel (Ni)

0.4

0.12

Lead (Pb)

0.5

0.15

Antimony (Sb)

0.06

0.1

Selenium (Se)

0.1

0.04

Zinc (Zn)

4

1.2

Chloride

800

460

Fluoride

10

2.5

Sulphate

1000*

1500

Phenol index

1

0.3

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)**

500

160

Total dissolved solids (TDS)***

4000

-

* If the waste exceeds the limit values for sulphate, it may still be considered as meeting the acceptance criteria provided that leaching does not exceed any of the following values: 1500 mg/l as C0 at L/S = 0.1 l/kg and 6000 mg/kg at L/S = 10 l/kg.

** If the waste exceeds the limit values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at its own pH value, it may alternatively be tested at L/S = 10 l/kg and a pH between 7.5 and 8.0. The waste may be considered as meeting the acceptance criteria for DOC if the results of this test do not exceed 500 mg/l.

*** The values for total dissolved solids (TDS) can be used as an alternative to the values for sulphate and chloride.

2.1.2. Limit values for organic parameters

In addition to the limit values for leaching in point 2.1.1, slightly contaminated masses to be dumped at a landfill for inert waste must not exceed the following limit values for the total content of organic parameters:

Parameter - Value 
Total organic carbon (TOC) - 3 %* 
Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) - 6 mg/kg 
Polychlorinated biphenyls (7 congeners of PCB) - 1 mg/kg 
Mineral oil (C10 to C40) - 500 mg/kg 
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH 16) - 20 mg/kg 
Benzo(a)pyrene           2 mg/kg

* In the case of soil, the competent authority may allow a higher limit value, provided that the limit value for dissolved organic carbon, 500 mg/kg, is met at L/S = 10 l/kg, either at the pH of the soil or at a pH value between 7.5 and 8.0.

2.2. Acceptance criteria for landfills for non-hazardous waste

Waste which is not classified as hazardous waste pursuant to chapter 11, appendix 1 of the Waste Regulations (the European List of Wastes), may be dumped at a landfill for non-hazardous waste.

2.2.1. Acceptance criteria for gypsum waste

Gypsum waste shall be dumped in cells where biodegradable waste is not accepted. Waste deposited in cells for gypsum waste shall not exceed the following limit values:

Parameter - Value 
Total organic carbon (TOC) - 5 % 
pH - At least 6

If the total organic carbon (TOC) values are not achieved, the competent authority may allow a higher limit value, provided that the limit value for DOC, 800 mg/kg, is met at L/S = 10 l/kg, either its own pH or at a pH value between 7.5 and 8.0.

2.3. Acceptance criteria for non-hazardous waste and hazardous waste co-disposed at a landfill for non-hazardous waste

2.3.1. Leaching limit values

Hazardous waste which is stable and has a leaching behaviour which will not change adversely in the long term under normal landfill conditions may be co-disposed with non-hazardous waste at a landfill or in a cell for non-hazardous waste, provided that the waste does not exceed the following leaching limit values:

Parameter L/S = 10 l/kg from standard leaching test with 
particle size < 4 mm 
mg/kg dry matter
C0 (L/S = 0.1 l/kg) from percolation test 
mg/l

Arsenic (As)

2

0.3

Barium (Ba)

100

20

Cadmium (Cd)

1

0.3

Chromium (Cr), total

10

2.5

Copper (Cu)

50

30

Mercury (Hg)

0.2

0.03

Molybdenum (Mo)

10

3.5

Nickel (Ni)

10

3

Lead (Pb)

10

3

Antimony (Sb)

0.7

0.15

Selenium (Se)

0.5

0.2

Zinc (Zn)

50

15

Chloride

15,000

8,500

Fluoride

150

40

Sulphate

20,000

7,000

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)*

800

250

Total dissolved solids (TDS)**

60,000

-

* If the waste exceeds the limit value for DOC at its own pH value, it may alternatively be tested at L/S = 10 l/kg and a pH between 7.5 and 8.0. The waste may be considered as meeting the acceptance criteria for DOC if the result of this test does not exceed 800 mg/kg. 
** The limit value for total dissolved solids (TDS) can be used as an alternative to the values for sulphate and chloride.

2.3.2. Limit values for other parameters

a) Waste in a cell where non-hazardous waste and stable hazardous waste are co-disposed shall not exceed the following limit values:

Parameter - Value 
Total organic carbon (TOC) - 5 %* 
pH - At least 6

* If this value is not achieved, the competent authority may allow a higher limit value, provided that the limit value for DOC, 800 mg/kg, is met at L/S 10 l/kg, either at its own pH or at a pH of between 7.5 and 8.0.

2.3.3. Acceptance criteria for asbestos waste

Asbestos waste may only be accepted at landfills or in cells which meet the following requirements: 
- The content of the cell is limited to construction materials containing asbestos and other appropriate asbestos waste, 
- Asbestos waste shall be covered with appropriate material on a daily basis and before each compacting operation. If the waste is not packed, it shall be sprinkled regularly, 
- The final top cover of the landfill/cell shall be able to prevent the dispersion of fibres, 
- No work is carried out at the landfill/cell which could lead to a release of fibres (e.g. the drilling of holes), 
- A map showing the location of the landfill/cell shall be available. The map shall be kept after closure of the landfill, 
- Appropriate measures must be taken to limit possible use of the land after closure of the landfill, in order to prevent human contact with the waste.

2.4. Acceptance criteria for waste at landfills for hazardous waste

2.4.1. Leaching limit values

Hazardous waste to be dumped at landfills for hazardous waste may not exceed the following leaching limit values:

Parameter L/S = 10 l/kg at standard leaching test with particle size < 4 mm
mg/kg dry matter
C0 (L/S = 0.1 l/kg) at  percolation test
mg/l

Arsenic (As)

25

3

Barium (Ba)

300

60

Cadmium (Cd)

5

1.7

Chromium (Cr), total

70

15

Copper (Cu)

100

60

Mercury (Hg)

2

0.3

Molybdenum (Mo)

30

10

Nickel (Ni)

40

12

Lead (Pb)

50

15

Antimony (Sb)

5

1

Selenium (Se)

7

3

Zinc (Zn)

50

60

Chloride

25,000

15,000

Fluoride

500

120

Sulphate

50,000

17,000

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)*

1,000

320

Total dissolved solids (TDS)**

100,000

-

* If the waste exceeds the limit values for DOC at its own pH, it may alternatively be tested at L/S = 10 l/kg and a pH between 7.5 and 8.0. The waste may be considered as meeting the acceptance criteria for DOC if the result of this determination does not exceed 1,000 mg/kg. 
** The values for total dissolved solids (TDS) can be used as an alternative to the limit values for sulphate and chloride.

2.4.2.  Limit values for organic parameters

In addition to the limit values for leaching behaviour laid down in 2.4.1, hazardous waste may only exceed one of the following limit values:

Parameter - Value 
Loss of ignition - 10 % 
Total organic carbon (TOC) - 6 %*

* If this value is not achieved, the relevant authority may allow a higher limit value, provided that the limit value for DOC, 1,000 mg/kg, is met at L/S = 10 l/kg, either at its own pH or at a pH value between 7.5 and 8.0.

2.5 Exemptions from limit values

For individual waste deliveries, the competent authority may decide that a landfill in class 1 or 2 may accept waste with leaching behaviour or content of hazardous substances up to three times higher than that listed in this appendix. However, this does not apply to: 
a) Leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 
b) Content of total organic carbon (TOC) in non-hazardous waste co-disposed with non-reactive hazardous waste 
c) pH for non-hazardous waste co-disposed with non-reactive hazardous waste 
d) Loss of ignition for waste delivered to landfills for hazardous waste.

An environmental impact assessment must have been carried out, showing that higher limit values do not entail an increased risk to human health or to the environment.

2.6 Acceptance criteria for waste for underground storage sites

An underground storage site may only accept waste which fulfils site-specific acceptance criteria as laid down by the competent authority on the basis of a site-specific risk assessment. In addition, the following applies:

Underground storage sites for inert waste may only accept waste which fulfils the criteria listed under point 2.1. Underground storage sites for non-hazardous waste may only accept waste which fulfils the criteria listed under points 2.2 or 2.3. Only the site-specific acceptance criteria apply at underground storage sites for hazardous waste.

Waste types which may react with each other may only be accepted if they are kept physically separated.

2.6.1. Site-specific risk assessment 
The site-specific risk assessment shall cover both the operational and the post-operational phases, and must include: 
1) A geological assessment based on a comprehensive mapping of the geology of the site, including strata, faulting, fracturing and any seismic activity. 
2) Geomechanical assessment of the stability of the cavities, including any interactions between the geomechanical characteristics of the host rock and the stability of the deposited waste. 
3) Hydrogeological assessment based on a comprehensive mapping of the groundwater flow pattern. 
4) Geochemical assessment based on a comprehensive characterisation of the soil, rock and groundwater in the area. The assessment shall include the current situation and possible development over time. 
5) Biosphere impact assessment. The assessment shall include the current situation and possible development over time. 
6) Assessment of the operational phase based on a systematic analysis of the operation of the plant and the accepted waste. 
7) Long-term assessment based on a systematic analysis of potential scenarios for future development of the landfill and surrounding strata. 
8) Other relevant conditions such as nearby industrial or mining activities which may come into conflict with the landfill.

3. Sampling and test methods for waste

Sampling and testing of waste shall be carried out by independent and qualified persons at institutions with the necessary competence. The laboratories shall have a documented efficient quality assurance system through accreditation or similar.

Alternatively, sampling may be carried out by the producer of waste or the operators, provided that the sampling routines are quality assured by independent and competent institutions.

The testing of waste may also be carried out by the producer of waste or the operators if they have implemented an adequate quality assurance system including periodic independent checking, e.g. through accreditation or a system of similar quality.

CEN standards shall apply to sampling and testing. If a CEN standard is not available in the form of a formal European Standard (EN), a Norwegian standard or the draft CEN standard may be used when it has reached the prEN stage. If such standards are not available, adapted methods relevant to the problem at hand may be developed. Such methods must be scientifically documented, and shall as far as possible be based on applicable standards.

Sampling shall be based on a sampling strategy which takes the composition and characteristics of the waste into account, based on applicable standards for sampling of waste. The sampling strategy shall ensure that representative samples are taken, and that the extent of characterisation and testing is sufficient for the waste in question.

Appendix III. Control and monitoring procedures in operation and after-care phases

1. Introduction

The sampling of leachate and gas emissions and the monitoring in the recipient shall be conducted at relevant and representative points and at times and frequencies that reflect the actual emission and environmental effects. The monitoring programme shall be adapted to the individual landfill on the basis of its location, content and design. It shall be possible to carry out recipient monitoring in surface water and/or groundwater irrespective of the location of the landfill.

The monitoring procedures shall also be established with a view to checking
- that the processes within the landfill proceed as desired,
- that the environmental protection systems are functioning fully as intended,
- that the permit conditions for the landfill are fulfilled.

2. Meteorological data

If it is considered appropriate, for example as a step in the control of the water balances in the landfill, conditions can be set in the permit that meteorological data shall be collected at the landfill or from a nearby meteorological station.

3. Emission data: monitoring of leachate, surface water, groundwater and landfill gas

All landfills subject to a requirement to collect leachate, cf. appendix I to this chapter, point 2, cf. point 3.4, shall implement a leachate monitoring programme. Sampling and measuring of the volume and composition of leachate must be performed separately at each point at which leachate is discharged from the site (1).

The monitoring of surface water shall be carried out at no fewer than two points, one upstream from the landfill and one downstream, and using methods and parameters that record leakage over time.

The monitoring of the groundwater must focus on groundwater likely to be affected by the landfill with at least one measuring point in the groundwater inflow region and two points in the outflow region. The number of sample points can be increased on the basis of a specific hydrogeological survey and the need for early identification of accidental leachate release into the groundwater. Sampling must be carried out in at least three locations before the landfill begins operation in order to establish reference values for future sampling (2). 

To the degree that it is possible, limit values shall be established for groundwater that define when significant environmental damage has arisen and that trigger the duty to provide notification  under sections 9-14 and 9-15.

The monitoring of gas generation depends on the content of biodegradable waste at the landfill and must be representative of each section of the landfill.

The frequency of the sampling and analysis shall be assessed in each individual case. Suggested frequencies are given in the following table.

  

Operating phase 

After-care phase 

Leachate quantity

Monthly

Every six months

Leachate composition

Quarterly

Every six months

Volume and composition of surface water

Quarterly

Every six months

Groundwater level

Every six months

Every six months

Groundwater composition 

Site-specific freqency

Site-specific freqency

Landfill gas

Monthly

Every six months


For leachate and surface water, mixed samples shall be taken for monitoring purposes that are representative of the average composition during the period since the previous sampling.

The parameters to be measured and the substances to be analysed in the monitoring programme will vary according to the composition of the landfill. They must be specified in the permit and reflect the properties of the waste.

4. Development of a landfill

For landfills in the operating phase, a status overview of the development of the landfill shal be drawn up every year showing the surface area occupied by the waste, the volume and composition, landfilling methods, duration of the landfilling and remaining capacity. Any settlement in the landfill is to be registered for all landfills both during the operating and the after-care phase.

(1) Reference: General guidelines on sampling technology, ISO 5667-2 (1991). 
(2) Reference: Sampling of groundwater, ISO 5667, part 11, 1993.